Electric vehicle industry is a recent market that needs a strong innovation to reach its maturity dimension.
EV sales in Europe surpassed 214 600 units in the first three quarters of 2017, 39 % higher than for the same period of 2016.  The EU market is driven by Norway (50.875 EV sold). In Eu, 2017 sales will reach 310 000 plug-ins.
EV and PHEV sales now make up more than 1% of the total number of vehicles sold, up from 0.4% two years ago. 
The perspective IEA (International Energy Agency) scenarios on EV/PHEV deployment suggests a significant scale-up by 2030.


An oft-cited reason people don’t buy electric cars is “range anxiety” — if batteries struggle to take you as far as gas and charging stations are limited in number, the thinking goes, who would want one?
The main strategies to extend the efficiency per charge of electric vehicles are:

- to increase the car performance, reducing the energy consumption, in order to increase the mileage of the vehicle/per charge
- To increase charging infrastructures,
- To predict with high accuracy the right navigation and range availability of free vehicles for long trips.


Automotive air conditioning (AC) in the tropics consumes a large amount of energy. In conventional internal combustion engine cars, it consumes up to 30% of the fuel, while in battery electric cars, AC may reduce the battery range by up to 40% in an urban driving cycle condition (Ref: 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014m ).
Air conditioning compressors are the most common solution for any vehicles. Usually, the  AC system installed in the EV and hybrid vehicle too is based on gas compression and it is driven by an electric compressor. After many years of improvement, it is hard to imagine major improvement in it.
Furthermore, in the past two decades, it has been found out that traditional refrigeration systems and mechanical heat pump play an important role in the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming.
According to the new regulations, the conventional vapor compression systems are currently worked by using hydrofluorocarbons as refrigerant.
However, the use of these new refrigerants has also been restricted due to limitation of the emission of some greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, hydrofluorocarbons, PFC, and SF6) in Kyoto protocol. The greenhouse gases might be banned in the next decades. 


E-llum A/C system is an advanced absorption air conditioning system based on the innovative E-llum technology. . The goal of the system is to improve cooling efficiency for the electric vehicles A/C system.
This solution will make a more efficient use of the battery power by recycling the available and wasted heat. This will help increase range per charge and reduce range anxiety.
As an absorption heat pump, A/C System operates with external thermal energy sources (e.g. waste heat, solar, etc).


The performance of any heat pump based either on a compressor cycle or an absorption cycle is strictly related to the external working conditions.
In the weakly warm season, the compressor pump works very well but it’s also moderately useful. While its efficiency is drastically lower in a very hot season when  cooling  is more required.
Instead the absorption pump  could increase its performances when the external temperature is higher.